Crypto arbitrage guide: How to make money as a beginner

High Frequency Trading

The highfreqtrading subreddit is a place for people of all backgrounds to join in informed discussion around high-frequency trading systems with an emphasis on sharing direct expertise and firsthand knowledge.
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How to profit from crypto arbitrage trading (without transferring between exchanges)

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How to set up your crypto arbitrage bot with HaasOnline Trade Server - HaasOnline

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How to profit from crypto arbitrage trading

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How to profit from crypto arbitrage trading

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How to profit from crypto arbitrage trading

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How to profit from crypto arbitrage trading

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Complicated Crypto Tax Situations And How To Fix Them! (Margin, IRAs, DeFi, Masternodes, Arbitrage trading, and much more)

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Complicated Crypto Tax Situations And How To Fix Them! (Margin, IRAs, DeFi, Masternodes, Arbitrage trading, and much more)

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[Crypto trading webinar in 1 hr] How to discover arbitrage opportunities?

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How to deal with an Ethereum investor who thinks he's my wife?

Hey so welcome. I'm having some trouble getting one of the biggest Ethereum investors to pay me for my work.
Basically, one of ethereum's biggest investors has been profitting millions off my work without paying me. His name is Fred Ehrsam over at paradigm capital. I think it's EXTREMELEY relevant to Ethereum because he's investing my money all across the space, and i worry every night that other innocent people will be ripped off by him.
I met Fred shortly after he left Coinbase. I had taken a year off from medical school to seek funding for a very proftiable crypto trading algorithm. I knew that if i could get funding for the trading algorithm, then i could use the profits to develop a blockchain-based clinical treatment platform, and in turn treat more patients than i would otherwise as a doctor. Although i was making a very high percentage per day doing this trading strategy, i didn't have enough base capital to completely cover withdrawal fees from more than two exchanges. After examining graphs and other materials i prepared for him, Fred encouraged me to fully drop out of medical school to start a hedge fund with him. Together we came up with the name Paradigm Capital along with about 48 other hedge fund names. So, after that, I worked extremely hard to expand the algorithm from two to five exchanges...
At one point I was literally living out of my car in a Walmart parking lot to keep as much money in my trading algorithm as possible, because Fred kept saying he was going to send money to help see if it would scale to 5 exchanges. This guy had a net worth of $21 million at the time i believe. But he never wound up sending the money but kept promising he would. So after a lot more work I expanded the algo to 5 exchanges doing my part.
After a few months of expanding the algorithm i stayed at Fred's for a second time a few months later, where he asked me to shower in his room and I then introduced him to a girl i was into, but then he changed gears and told me that i didn't have enough social awareness to start a hedge fund with him. I pretty much knew right then that Fred had stolen or was going to steal my algorithm. But I didn't have enough proof until this Forbes article came out this year. So, my algo is making 100% per month profits for Paradigm Capital, and Fred has stolen a lot of money from me, like millions.
Why is Fred so comfortable profitting off my work, and feeding himself off it? Why am I doing all the hard work out in the fields, and he's sitting back and eating fruit and primping himself? Fred must have one of those delusions that he's my wife in the olden times. But I never wanted to have that kind of relationship with him.
If I were an investor who wasn't involved in this, I would take into account that nothing Ehrsam has done aside from my arbitrage algorithm has worked. Augur, Veil, tBTC, MakerDAO... they've all been more problems than solutions. Why would you invest in an ecosystem who's philosophies give dozens of tries to a dishonest guy, while the honest, competent people are boxed out? Uhh... Fred literally killed the patients I could've treated as a doctor, and also those I could've treated on my blockchain platform. That's not good. Fred likes prediction platforms because they can be used to kill people through bounties. U think that's the best way to use a blockchain? Fred you will never kill me with a prediction market. You go try and do that with the money you stole from me. He's making decisions with money that's rightfully mine, spending it on projects that, in my opinion, won't be profitable nor do much to reduce suffering in the world. My opinion as a VC would be that if you're going to blow millions of dollars on high-risk projects, at least choose the ones that will have a positive societal impact. Not tBTC copycat projects and augur bounties etc
Regardless of sexuality, having a dishonest guy like Fred in your "tribe"* only makes the rest of you look bad. Is it true that in SF you always have to have poke the noobs before doing business with them? Because that doesn't sound fair nor profitable. Divinity doesn't exclusively speak through people who love pretzel sticks.
Now PTT wants to Pied Piper the 14-year-olds over at /forniteBR into supporting Ethereum through "community points", hoping a changing of the guard on the East Coast will give him an opportunity to rise up? PTT, He will never let that happen. Not because you're gay, but because your tribe destroys people's lives, like Gawker once did. I will die making sure you don't get Ethereum off the ground.
What is it about Fred that makes him so proud to keep profitting off my work without paying me? He's not my wife. Maybe he's not much a man, but that doesn't make him a woman living with me on a farm with me in 500 B.C. Do u know how easy it is to lie and backstab people to get ahead when you're smart? Actual smart people don't shoot lay-ups, they don't take the easy way. They go for the D U N K S. Does Joe Lubin's backstabbing mantra account for that?
I just want to be paid for my work.
Edit: "Tribe" is a bit of an intellectual meme these days that appears fairly often in crypto circles. It's based on something called "Dunbar's number" which states that social circles max out at 150 people, and everything you do is for those 150 people (your "tribe"). It's not a reference to anything to do with sexuality, rather here it's meant to poke at one of crypto's main problems today. The "tribe" philosophy directly contradicts performing altruisitic acts for the good of humanity, or even for a group as large as a nation. Rather, you do selfish acts for people in your immediate social circle.
References to what a "tribe" is: 1. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dunbar%27s_number 2. https://medium.com/@mmalmi/law-is-better-without-monopoly-778963880276 3. https://steemit.com/anarchy/@cryptogee/watching-child-porn-is-okay-says-ethereum-owner-vitalik-when-anarchy-goes-too-far 4. https://steemit.com/steemengine/@steem-eng/a-tribe-for-every-niche 5. https://acumen.org/moralrevolution/, first chapter 6. https://www.resilience.org/stories/2019-09-24/dunbars-number-and-genuine-community/
submitted by KevinMauro to ethereum [link] [comments]

ETHE & GBTC (Grayscale) Frequently Asked Questions

It is no doubt Grayscale’s booming popularity as a mainstream investment has caused a lot of community hullabaloo lately. As such, I felt it was worth making a FAQ regarding the topic. I’m looking to update this as needed and of course am open to suggestions / adding any questions.
The goal is simply to have a thread we can link to anyone with questions on Grayscale and its products. Instead of explaining the same thing 3 times a day, shoot those posters over to this thread. My hope is that these questions are answered in a fairly simple and easy to understand manner. I think as the sub grows it will be a nice reference point for newcomers.
Disclaimer: I do NOT work for Grayscale and as such am basing all these answers on information that can be found on their website / reports. (Grayscale’s official FAQ can be found here). I also do NOT have a finance degree, I do NOT have a Series 6 / 7 / 140-whatever, and I do NOT work with investment products for my day job. I have an accounting background and work within the finance world so I have the general ‘business’ knowledge to put it all together, but this is all info determined in my best faith effort as a layman. The point being is this --- it is possible I may explain something wrong or missed the technical terms, and if that occurs I am more than happy to update anything that can be proven incorrect
Everything below will be in reference to ETHE but will apply to GBTC as well. If those two segregate in any way, I will note that accordingly.
What is Grayscale? 
Grayscale is the company that created the ETHE product. Their website is https://grayscale.co/
What is ETHE? 
ETHE is essentially a stock that intends to loosely track the price of ETH. It does so by having each ETHE be backed by a specific amount of ETH that is held on chain. Initially, the newly minted ETHE can only be purchased by institutions and accredited investors directly from Grayscale. Once a year has passed (6 months for GBTC) it can then be listed on the OTCQX Best Market exchange for secondary trading. Once listed on OTCQX, anyone investor can purchase at this point. Additional information on ETHE can be found here.
So ETHE is an ETF? 
No. For technical reasons beyond my personal understandings it is not labeled an ETF. I know it all flows back to the “Securities Act Rule 144”, but due to my limited knowledge on SEC regulations I don’t want to misspeak past that. If anyone is more knowledgeable on the subject I am happy to input their answer here.
How long has ETHE existed? 
ETHE was formed 12/14/2017. GBTC was formed 9/25/2013.
How is ETHE created? 
The trust will issue shares to “Authorized Participants” in groups of 100 shares (called baskets). Authorized Participants are the only persons that may place orders to create these baskets and they do it on behalf of the investor.
Source: Creation and Redemption of Shares section on page 39 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Note – The way their reports word this makes it sound like there is an army of authorizers doing the dirty work, but in reality there is only one Authorized Participant. At this moment the “Genesis” company is the sole Authorized Participant. Genesis is owned by the “Digital Currency Group, Inc.” which is the parent company of Grayscale as well. (And to really go down the rabbit hole it looks like DCG is the parent company of CoinDesk and is “backing 150+ companies across 30 countries, including Coinbase, Ripple, and Chainalysis.”)
Source: Digital Currency Group, Inc. informational section on page 77 of the “Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) Form 10-K (2019)” – Located Here
Source: Barry E. Silbert informational section on page 75 of the “Grayscale Bitcoin Trust (BTC) Form 10-K (2019)” – Located Here
How does Grayscale acquire the ETH to collateralize the ETHE product? 
An Investor may acquire ETHE by paying in cash or exchanging ETH already owned.
Source: Creation and Redemption of Shares section on page 40 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Where does Grayscale store their ETH? Does it have a specific wallet address we can follow? 
ETH is stored with Coinbase Custody Trust Company, LLC. I am unaware of any specific address or set of addresses that can be used to verify the ETH is actually there.
As an aside - I would actually love to see if anyone knows more about this as it’s something that’s sort of peaked my interest after being asked about it… I find it doubtful we can find that however.
Source: Part C. Business Information, Item 8, subsection A. on page 16 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Can ETHE be redeemed for ETH? 
No, currently there is no way to give your shares of ETHE back to Grayscale to receive ETH back. The only method of getting back into ETH would be to sell your ETHE to someone else and then use those proceeds to buy ETH yourself.
Source: Redemption Procedures on page 41 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Why are they not redeeming shares? 
I think the report summarizes it best:
Redemptions of Shares are currently not permitted and the Trust is unable to redeem Shares. Subject to receipt of regulatory approval from the SEC and approval by the Sponsor in its sole discretion, the Trust may in the future operate a redemption program. Because the Trust does not believe that the SEC would, at this time, entertain an application for the waiver of rules needed in order to operate an ongoing redemption program, the Trust currently has no intention of seeking regulatory approval from the SEC to operate an ongoing redemption program.
Source: Redemption Procedures on page 41 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
What is the fee structure? 
ETHE has an annual fee of 2.5%. GBTC has an annual fee of 2.0%. Fees are paid by selling the underlying ETH / BTC collateralizing the asset.
Source: ETHE’s informational page on Grayscale’s website - Located Here
Source: Description of Trust on page 31 & 32 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
What is the ratio of ETH to ETHE? 
At the time of posting (6/19/2020) each ETHE share is backed by .09391605 ETH. Each share of GBTC is backed by .00096038 BTC.
ETHE & GBTC’s specific information page on Grayscale’s website updates the ratio daily – Located Here
For a full historical look at this ratio, it can be found on the Grayscale home page on the upper right side if you go to Tax Documents > 2019 Tax Documents > Grayscale Ethereum Trust 2019 Tax Letter.
Why is the ratio not 1:1? Why is it always decreasing? 
While I cannot say for certain why the initial distribution was not a 1:1 backing, it is more than likely to keep the price down and allow more investors a chance to purchase ETHE / GBTC.
As noted above, fees are paid by selling off the ETH collateralizing ETHE. So this number will always be trending downward as time goes on.
Source: Description of Trust on page 32 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
I keep hearing about how this is locked supply… explain? 
As noted above, there is currently no redemption program for converting your ETHE back into ETH. This means that once an ETHE is issued, it will remain in circulation until a redemption program is formed --- something that doesn’t seem to be too urgent for the SEC or Grayscale at the moment. Tiny amounts will naturally be removed due to fees, but the bulk of the asset is in there for good.
Knowing that ETHE cannot be taken back and destroyed at this time, the ETH collateralizing it will not be removed from the wallet for the foreseeable future. While it is not fully locked in the sense of say a totally lost key, it is not coming out any time soon.
Per their annual statement:
The Trust’s ETH will be transferred out of the ETH Account only in the following circumstances: (i) transferred to pay the Sponsor’s Fee or any Additional Trust Expenses, (ii) distributed in connection with the redemption of Baskets (subject to the Trust’s obtaining regulatory approval from the SEC to operate an ongoing redemption program and the consent of the Sponsor), (iii) sold on an as-needed basis to pay Additional Trust Expenses or (iv) sold on behalf of the Trust in the event the Trust terminates and liquidates its assets or as otherwise required by law or regulation.
Source: Description of Trust on page 31 of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
Grayscale now owns a huge chunk of both ETH and BTC’s supply… should we be worried about manipulation, a sell off to crash the market crash, a staking cartel? 
First, it’s important to remember Grayscale is a lot more akin to an exchange then say an investment firm. Grayscale is working on behalf of its investors to create this product for investor control. Grayscale doesn’t ‘control’ the ETH it holds any more then Coinbase ‘controls’ the ETH in its hot wallet. (Note: There are likely some varying levels of control, but specific to this topic Grayscale cannot simply sell [legally, at least] the ETH by their own decision in the same manner Coinbase wouldn't be able to either.)
That said, there shouldn’t be any worry in the short to medium time-frame. As noted above, Grayscale can’t really remove ETH other than for fees or termination of the product. At 2.5% a year, fees are noise in terms of volume. Grayscale seems to be the fastest growing product in the crypto space at the moment and termination of the product seems unlikely.
IF redemptions were to happen tomorrow, it’s extremely unlikely we would see a mass exodus out of the product to redeem for ETH. And even if there was incentive to get back to ETH, the premium makes it so that it would be much more cost effective to just sell your ETHE on the secondary market and buy ETH yourself. Remember, any redemption is up to the investors and NOT something Grayscale has direct control over.
Yes, but what about [insert criminal act here]… 
Alright, yes. Technically nothing is stopping Grayscale from selling all the ETH / BTC and running off to the Bahamas (Hawaii?). BUT there is no real reason for them to do so. Barry is an extremely public figure and it won’t be easy for him to get away with that. Grayscale’s Bitcoin Trust creates SEC reports weekly / bi-weekly and I’m sure given the sentiment towards crypto is being watched carefully. Plus, Grayscale is making tons of consistent revenue and thus has little to no incentive to give that up for a quick buck.
That’s a lot of ‘happy little feels’ Bob, is there even an independent audit or is this Tether 2.0? 
Actually yes, an independent auditor report can be found in their annual reports. It is clearly aimed more towards the financial side and I doubt the auditors are crypto savants, but it is at least one extra set of eyes. Auditors are Friedman LLP – Auditor since 2015.
Source: Independent Auditor Report starting on page 116 (of the PDF itself) of the “Grayscale Ethereum Trust Annual Report (2019)” – Located Here
As mentioned by user TheCrpytosAndBloods (In Comments Below), a fun fact:
The company’s auditors Friedman LLP were also coincidentally TetheBitfinex’s auditors until They controversially parted ways in 2018 when the Tether controversy was at its height. I am not suggesting for one moment that there is anything shady about DCG - I just find it interesting it’s the same auditor.
“Grayscale sounds kind of lame” / “Not your keys not your crypto!” / “Why is anyone buying this, it sounds like a scam?” 
Welp, for starters this honestly is not really a product aimed at the people likely to be reading this post. To each their own, but do remember just because something provides no value to you doesn’t mean it can’t provide value to someone else. That said some of the advertised benefits are as follows:
So for example, I can set up an IRA at a brokerage account that has $0 trading fees. Then I can trade GBTC and ETHE all day without having to worry about tracking my taxes. All with the relative safety something like E-Trade provides over Binance.
As for how it benefits the everyday ETH holder? I think the supply lock is a positive. I also think this product exposes the Ethereum ecosystem to people who otherwise wouldn’t know about it.
Why is there a premium? Why is ETHE’s premium so insanely high compared to GBTC’s premium? 
There are a handful of theories of why a premium exists at all, some even mentioned in the annual report. The short list is as follows:
Why is ETHE’s so much higher the GBTC’s? Again, a few thoughts:

Are there any other differences between ETHE and GBTC? 
I touched on a few of the smaller differences, but one of the more interesting changes is GBTC is now a “SEC reporting company” as of January 2020. Which again goes beyond my scope of knowledge so I won’t comment on it too much… but the net result is GBTC is now putting out weekly / bi-weekly 8-K’s and annual 10-K’s. This means you can track GBTC that much easier at the moment as well as there is an extra layer of validity to the product IMO.
I’m looking for some statistics on ETHE… such as who is buying, how much is bought, etc? 
There is a great Q1 2020 report I recommend you give a read that has a lot of cool graphs and data on the product. It’s a little GBTC centric, but there is some ETHE data as well. It can be found here hidden within the 8-K filings.Q1 2020 is the 4/16/2020 8-K filing.
For those more into a GAAP style report see the 2019 annual 10-K of the same location.
Is Grayscale only just for BTC and ETH? 
No, there are other products as well. In terms of a secondary market product, ETCG is the Ethereum Classic version of ETHE. Fun Fact – ETCG was actually put out to the secondary market first. It also has a 3% fee tied to it where 1% of it goes to some type of ETC development fund.
In terms of institutional and accredited investors, there are a few ‘fan favorites’ such as Bitcoin Cash, Litcoin, Stellar, XRP, and Zcash. Something called Horizion (Backed by ZEN I guess? Idk to be honest what that is…). And a diversified Mutual Fund type fund that has a little bit of all of those. None of these products are available on the secondary market.
Are there alternatives to Grayscale? 
I know they exist, but I don’t follow them. I’ll leave this as a “to be edited” section and will add as others comment on what they know.
Per user Over-analyser (in comments below):
Coinshares (Formerly XBT provider) are the only similar product I know of. BTC, ETH, XRP and LTC as Exchange Traded Notes (ETN).
It looks like they are fully backed with the underlying crypto (no premium).
https://coinshares.com/etps/xbt-provideinvestor-resources/daily-hedging-position
Denominated in SEK and EUR. Certainly available in some UK pensions (SIPP).
As asked by pegcity - Okay so I was under the impression you can just give them your own ETH and get ETHE, but do you get 11 ETHE per ETH or do you get the market value of ETH in USD worth of ETHE? 
I have always understood that the ETHE issued directly through Grayscale is issued without the premium. As in, if I were to trade 1 ETH for ETHE I would get 11, not say only 2 or 3 because the secondary market premium is so high. And if I were paying cash only I would be paying the price to buy 1 ETH to get my 11 ETHE. Per page 39 of their annual statement, it reads as follows:
The Trust will issue Shares to Authorized Participants from time to time, but only in one or more Baskets (with a Basket being a block of 100 Shares). The Trust will not issue fractions of a Basket. The creation (and, should the Trust commence a redemption program, redemption) of Baskets will be made only in exchange for the delivery to the Trust, or the distribution by the Trust, of the number of whole and fractional ETH represented by each Basket being created (or, should the Trust commence a redemption program, redeemed), which is determined by dividing (x) the number of ETH owned by the Trust at 4:00 p.m., New York time, on the trade date of a creation or redemption order, after deducting the number of ETH representing the U.S. dollar value of accrued but unpaid fees and expenses of the Trust (converted using the ETH Index Price at such time, and carried to the eighth decimal place), by (y) the number of Shares outstanding at such time (with the quotient so obtained calculated to one one-hundred-millionth of one ETH (i.e., carried to the eighth decimal place)), and multiplying such quotient by 100 (the “Basket ETH Amount”). All questions as to the calculation of the Basket ETH Amount will be conclusively determined by the Sponsor and will be final and binding on all persons interested in the Trust. The Basket ETH Amount multiplied by the number of Baskets being created or redeemed is the “Total Basket ETH Amount.” The number of ETH represented by a Share will gradually decrease over time as the Trust’s ETH are used to pay the Trust’s expenses. Each Share represented approximately 0.0950 ETH and 0.0974 ETH as of December 31, 2019 and 2018, respectively.

submitted by Bob-Rossi to ethfinance [link] [comments]

A new whitepaper analysing the performance and scalability of the Streamr pub/sub messaging Network is now available. Take a look at some of the fascinating key results in this introductory blog

A new whitepaper analysing the performance and scalability of the Streamr pub/sub messaging Network is now available. Take a look at some of the fascinating key results in this introductory blog

Streamr Network: Performance and Scalability Whitepaper


https://preview.redd.it/bstqyn43x4j51.png?width=2600&format=png&auto=webp&s=81683ca6303ab84ab898c096345464111d674ee5
The Corea milestone of the Streamr Network went live in late 2019. Since then a few people in the team have been working on an academic whitepaper to describe its design principles, position it with respect to prior art, and prove certain properties it has. The paper is now ready, and it has been submitted to the IEEE Access journal for peer review. It is also now published on the new Papers section on the project website. In this blog, I’ll introduce the paper and explain its key results. All the figures presented in this post are from the paper.
The reasons for doing this research and writing this paper were simple: many prospective users of the Network, especially more serious ones such as enterprises, ask questions like ‘how does it scale?’, ‘why does it scale?’, ‘what is the latency in the network?’, and ‘how much bandwidth is consumed?’. While some answers could be provided before, the Network in its currently deployed form is still small-scale and can’t really show a track record of scalability for example, so there was clearly a need to produce some in-depth material about the structure of the Network and its performance at large, global scale. The paper answers these questions.
Another reason is that decentralized peer-to-peer networks have experienced a new renaissance due to the rise in blockchain networks. Peer-to-peer pub/sub networks were a hot research topic in the early 2000s, but not many real-world implementations were ever created. Today, most blockchain networks use methods from that era under the hood to disseminate block headers, transactions, and other events important for them to function. Other megatrends like IoT and social media are also creating demand for new kinds of scalable message transport layers.

The latency vs. bandwidth tradeoff

The current Streamr Network uses regular random graphs as stream topologies. ‘Regular’ here means that nodes connect to a fixed number of other nodes that publish or subscribe to the same stream, and ‘random’ means that those nodes are selected randomly.
Random connections can of course mean that absurd routes get formed occasionally, for example a data point might travel from Germany to France via the US. But random graphs have been studied extensively in the academic literature, and their properties are not nearly as bad as the above example sounds — such graphs are actually quite good! Data always takes multiple routes in the network, and only the fastest route counts. The less-than-optimal routes are there for redundancy, and redundancy is good, because it improves security and churn tolerance.
There is an important parameter called node degree, which is the fixed number of nodes to which each node in a topology connects. A higher node degree means more duplication and thus more bandwidth consumption for each node, but it also means that fast routes are more likely to form. It’s a tradeoff; better latency can be traded for worse bandwidth consumption. In the following section, we’ll go deeper into analyzing this relationship.

Network diameter scales logarithmically

One useful metric to estimate the behavior of latency is the network diameter, which is the number of hops on the shortest path between the most distant pair of nodes in the network (i.e. the “longest shortest path”. The below plot shows how the network diameter behaves depending on node degree and number of nodes.

Network diameter
We can see that the network diameter increases logarithmically (very slowly), and a higher node degree ‘flattens the curve’. This is a property of random regular graphs, and this is very good — growing from 10,000 nodes to 100,000 nodes only increases the diameter by a few hops! To analyse the effect of the node degree further, we can plot the maximum network diameter using various node degrees:
Network diameter in network of 100 000 nodes
We can see that there are diminishing returns for increasing the node degree. On the other hand, the penalty (number of duplicates, i.e. bandwidth consumption), increases linearly with node degree:

Number of duplicates received by the non-publisher nodes
In the Streamr Network, each stream forms its own separate overlay network and can even have a custom node degree. This allows the owner of the stream to configure their preferred latency/bandwidth balance (imagine such a slider control in the Streamr Core UI). However, finding a good default value is important. From this analysis, we can conclude that:
  • The logarithmic behavior of network diameter leads us to hope that latency might behave logarithmically too, but since the number of hops is not the same as latency (in milliseconds), the scalability needs to be confirmed in the real world (see next section).
  • A node degree of 4 yields good latency/bandwidth balance, and we have selected this as the default value in the Streamr Network. This value is also used in all the real-world experiments described in the next section.
It’s worth noting that in such a network, the bandwidth requirement for publishers is determined by the node degree and not the number of subscribers. With a node degree 4 and a million subscribers, the publisher only uploads 4 copies of a data point, and the million subscribing nodes share the work of distributing the message among themselves. In contrast, a centralized data broker would need to push out a million copies.

Latency scales logarithmically

To see if actual latency scales logarithmically in real-world conditions, we ran large numbers of nodes in 16 different Amazon AWS data centers around the world. We ran experiments with network sizes between 32 to 2048 nodes. Each node published messages to the network, and we measured how long it took for the other nodes to get the message. The experiment was repeated 10 times for each network size.
The below image displays one of the key results of the paper. It shows a CDF (cumulative distribution function) of the measured latencies across all experiments. The y-axis runs from 0 to 1, i.e. 0% to 100%.
CDF of message propagation delay
From this graph we can easily read things like: in a 32 nodes network (blue line), 50% of message deliveries happened within 150 ms globally, and all messages were delivered in around 250 ms. In the largest network of 2048 nodes (pink line), 99% of deliveries happened within 362 ms globally.
To put these results in context, PubNub, a centralized message brokering service, promises to deliver messages within 250 ms — and that’s a centralized service! Decentralization comes with unquestionable benefits (no vendor lock-in, no trust required, network effects, etc.), but if such protocols are inferior in terms of performance or cost, they won’t get adopted. It’s pretty safe to say that the Streamr Network is on par with centralized services even when it comes to latency, which is usually the Achilles’ heel of P2P networks (think of how slow blockchains are!). And the Network will only get better with time.
Then we tackled the big question: does the latency behave logarithmically?
Mean message propagation delay in Amazon experiments
Above, the thick line is the average latency for each network size. From the graph, we can see that the latency grows logarithmically as the network size increases, which means excellent scalability.
The shaded area shows the difference between the best and worst average latencies in each repeat. Here we can see the element of chance at play; due to the randomness in which nodes become neighbours, some topologies are faster than others. Given enough repeats, some near-optimal topologies can be found. The difference between average topologies and the best topologies gives us a glimpse of how much room for optimisation there is, i.e. with a smarter-than-random topology construction, how much improvement is possible (while still staying in the realm of regular graphs)? Out of the observed topologies, the difference between the average and the best observed topology is between 5–13%, so not that much. Other subclasses of graphs, such as irregular graphs, trees, and so on, can of course unlock more room for improvement, but they are different beasts and come with their own disadvantages too.
It’s also worth asking: how much worse is the measured latency compared to the fastest possible latency, i.e. that of a direct connection? While having direct connections between a publisher and subscribers is definitely not scalable, secure, or often even feasible due to firewalls, NATs and such, it’s still worth asking what the latency penalty of peer-to-peer is.

Relative delay penalty in Amazon experiments
As you can see, this plot has the same shape as the previous one, but the y-axis is different. Here, we are showing the relative delay penalty (RDP). It’s the latency in the peer-to-peer network (shown in the previous plot), divided by the latency of a direct connection measured with the ping tool. So a direct connection equals an RDP value of 1, and the measured RDP in the peer-to-peer network is roughly between 2 and 3 in the observed topologies. It increases logarithmically with network size, just like absolute latency.
Again, given that latency is the Achilles’ heel of decentralized systems, that’s not bad at all. It shows that such a network delivers acceptable performance for the vast majority of use cases, only excluding the most latency-sensitive ones, such as online gaming or arbitrage trading. For most other use cases, it doesn’t matter whether it takes 25 or 75 milliseconds to deliver a data point.

Latency is predictable

It’s useful for a messaging system to have consistent and predictable latency. Imagine for example a smart traffic system, where cars can alert each other about dangers on the road. It would be pretty bad if, even minutes after publishing it, some cars still haven’t received the warning. However, such delays easily occur in peer-to-peer networks. Everyone in the crypto space has seen first-hand how plenty of Bitcoin or Ethereum nodes lag even minutes behind the latest chain state.
So we wanted to see whether it would be possible to estimate the latencies in the peer-to-peer network if the topology and the latencies between connected pairs of nodes are known. We applied Dijkstra’s algorithm to compute estimates for average latencies from the input topology data, and compared the estimates to the actual measured average latencies:
Mean message propagation delay in Amazon experiments
We can see that, at least in these experiments, the estimates seemed to provide a lower bound for the actual values, and the average estimation error was 3.5%. The measured value is higher than the estimated one because the estimation only considers network delays, while in reality there is also a little bit of a processing delay at each node.

Conclusion

The research has shown that the Streamr Network can be expected to deliver messages in roughly 150–350 milliseconds worldwide, even at a large scale with thousands of nodes subscribing to a stream. This is on par with centralized message brokers today, showing that the decentralized and peer-to-peer approach is a viable alternative for all but the most latency-sensitive applications.
It’s thrilling to think that by accepting a latency only 2–3 times longer than the latency of an unscalable and insecure direct connecion, applications can interconnect over an open fabric with global scalability, no single point of failure, no vendor lock-in, and no need to trust anyone — all that becomes available out of the box.
In the real-time data space, there are plenty of other aspects to explore, which we didn’t cover in this paper. For example, we did not measure throughput characteristics of network topologies. Different streams are independent, so clearly there’s scalability in the number of streams, and heavy streams can be partitioned, allowing each stream to scale too. Throughput is mainly limited, therefore, by the hardware and network connection used by the network nodes involved in a topology. Measuring the maximum throughput would basically be measuring the hardware as well as the performance of our implemented code. While interesting, this is not a high priority research target at this point in time. And thanks to the redundancy in the network, individual slow nodes do not slow down the whole topology; the data will arrive via faster nodes instead.
Also out of scope for this paper is analysing the costs of running such a network, including the OPEX for publishers and node operators. This is a topic of ongoing research, which we’re currently doing as part of designing the token incentive mechanisms of the Streamr Network, due to be implemented in a later milestone.
I hope that this blog has provided some insight into the fascinating results the team uncovered during this research. For a more in-depth look at the context of this work, and more detail about the research, we invite you to read the full paper.
If you have an interest in network performance and scalability from a developer or enterprise perspective, we will be hosting a talk about this research in the coming weeks, so keep an eye out for more details on the Streamr social media channels. In the meantime, feedback and comments are welcome. Please add a comment to this Reddit thread or email [contact@streamr.network](mailto:contact@streamr.network).
Originally published by. Henri at blog.streamr.network on August 24, 2020.
submitted by thamilton5 to streamr [link] [comments]

Earn $ 15 on September 1!, and 7 for each referred!! Instant withdraw, trade, arbitrage!!!

Hi,
Morpher (an interesting recently launched trading site) is airdroping on September 1 $ 15 that you can withdraw instantly!!! or exchanged. This amount can too used to trade on his site or to do crypto arbitrage. They offer some various instruments to trade like stocks, cryptocurrencies, commodities, foreign exchanges and indices. They also offer and interesting referral program in which each referrer can earn $ 7 per referrer!!! I attach you two manuals on how to do crypto arbitrage and an interesting trading strategy.
You can earn $ 15 soon registering here: get $ 15!!!
The manuals are here: 1. Crypto arbitrage: download 2. Trading strategy: download
I hope you enjoyed this article and that soon you can withdraw, trade or do arbitrage with your $$$. You can watch the countdown to this in Morpher's site: https://www.morpher.com/
Have a nice day!!!
submitted by jmrr777 to AirdropRating [link] [comments]

Earn $ 15 on September 1!, and 7 for each referred!! Instant withdraw, trade, arbitrage!!!

Hi,
Morpher (an interesting recently launched trading site) is airdroping on September 1 $ 15 that you can withdraw instantly!!! or exchanged. This amount can too used to trade on his site or to do crypto arbitrage. They offer some various instruments to trade like stocks, cryptocurrencies, commodities, foreign exchanges and indices. They also offer and interesting referral program in which each referrer can earn $ 7 per referrer!!! I attach you two manuals on how to do crypto arbitrage and an interesting trading strategy.
You can earn $ 15 soon registering here: get $ 15!!!
The manuals are here: 1. Crypto arbitrage: download 2. Trading strategy: download
I hope you enjoyed this article and that soon you can withdraw, trade or do arbitrage with your $$$. You can watch the countdown to this in Morpher's site: https://www.morpher.com/
Have a nice day!!!
submitted by jmrr777 to airdropalertcom [link] [comments]

high frequency trading @home!

Hello, never owned a server ( besides a few crypto miners )..
where to start for a high frequency trading setup so that i can run an arbitrage strategy from the basement of my house?
( not pretending to be profitanle but interested on learning how to do it the right way)
How much money will I have to put into it? Which hardware is best on the low budget side? Can I get some performance advantages over a VPS plan?
And most of all, how to meshure performance for an arbitrage strategy from a latency/network consistence point of view, the right way? What tools I'm supposed to use for such a porpouse?
( if this is not the right place to post the question please point me at a good subreddit to do so!)
Thanks!
submitted by bodytexture to homelab [link] [comments]

Investment Fraud - please help , I don‘t know what to do...

Hi All , about a year and a half about I invested 5 bitcoin personally, 10k GBP my gfs money, and 20k USD a friend put in as well with someone in the UK that had a crypto arbitrage fund that supposedly would pay 10% a week returns, with over 100 other people invested into the trade as well.
The guy spoke a great talk, sent emails with updates on the trade every week, in April 2019 he said he was moving the trade into another fund, and would return 70% a month and it would compound over 10 months, blindly everyone agreed to go forward with it.
Around June 2019 he started to say there was complications with the Fund and by September his disappeared , he continued to email other members saying that he’s working on it and that everything will be sorted soon...
Hard working people are out there entire savings (me included) behind this guy, many have gone bankrupt , one woman almost died because she can’t pay for her medical bills , some people have lost everything because of this individual ... he has not contacted me , my friend and other members in several months to over a year!
I’ve made multiple attempts to contact him to reach out , he disconnected his phone, deleted his Facebook , etc
Today a video went viral with him on secret twitter account he had of him sitting in his house talking about how great Donald trump is with a smirk on his face, and people praising him for being such a hero ! It makes me sick to my stomach! ive gone to twitter and called him out I don’t know what else to do except hunt him down with the police when the country opens back...
I am from the US, others in the trade are from UK , Europe and Aussie ...
It’s a crap situation for myself and many others involved ... some people still believe he’s honest and that he’s going to come through and do the right thing! But I doubt it!
I have a paper trail , emails, correspondence, messages as much as I can...
I’m not familiar with UK law so would much appreciate any help!
My feeling is with his new twitter fame he will try to harm more and more people and repeat this!
Thanks!
submitted by e1nste1n to LegalAdviceUK [link] [comments]

The biggest issue with topping up the card for Asian region.

You cannot use stable coin to top up and the process is really tedious and time-consuming. I was going to top up my card for 1500 USD so I had to convert my USDT thru crypto.com exchange.
Topping options are limited as all of them have huge spread percentage wise. MCO has like a 5 cent spread for any usable liquidity. So even if just a small amount of 1500 usdt, if I want to top up I have to buy MCO at 1% spread which is 15 dollars right there. Then you go back to top up the card which costs another 5 bucks so 20 dollars just to get 1500 on your card.
This is extremely frustrating. And it is understandable for pairs like MCO/USDt since it is not a high volume trading pair by any means but what about ETH/USDt?????
ETH/USDt has a 1 cent spread in Binance and 30 cent spread for any usable liquidity in crypto.com exchange. This is just so stupid!!
As a start-up firm with million of dollars, this can easily be solved within hours. If you guys don't know how to do it I can tell you how exactly how you should provide liquidity better for ETH/USDt or other major pairs.
You decrease the spread to like 4 to 5 cents more than Binance spread for the same pair and have a bot reading Binance's order flows. For example, if Binance has a 236.33 18ETH 236.37 20ETH, put like 236.30 1.8ETH 236.40 2ETH for your order book. If someone hit you in either direction, you can arbitrage it in Binance WHILE STILL PROVIDING USABLE LIQUIDTIY.
The hourly candle for ETH the hour I wanted to convert is 96 cents and that's super small and yet the crypto.com exchange has a usable spread for like 30 cents.
I know I can go deposit in Binance and exchange for ETH then come back but I don't see any reason prevent users from using the crypto.com exchange with a better user experience while crypto.com can increase its exchange volume and arbitrage for profits at the same time.
Please do something with it. I don't want to top up my cards knowing that I either have to do it by sending USDT to binance then covert it to ETH then come back with Binance charging me transfer fees or losing 20 bucks if I want to do it quickly. Thanks!
submitted by aalluubbaa to Crypto_com [link] [comments]

Yield Farming in DeFi — the Evolution outcome of the Crypto Industry

Yield Farming in DeFi — the Evolution outcome of the Crypto Industry

Yield Farming in DeFi — the Evolution outcome of the Crypto Industry
Yield Farming (income farming) is one of the key trends actively developing in DeFi. Thanks to this earnings strategy, the Compound project has recently taken off, ranking first in terms of the number of user funds blocked in the protocol.
The Yield Farming investment strategy, or income pharming, is to generate income from the placement of cryptocurrencies on various DeFi-platforms for crypto-lending. Before Yield Farming, the main trend in DeFi was conventional cryptocurrency deposits, bringing in 4–10% returns. However, Yield Farming can generate up to 100% annualized income.

Yield Farming is the main driver of the DeFi sector

The number of cryptocurrencies locked in DeFi (Total Value Locked — TVL) is now $2.29 billion. At the same time, over the past month, the capitalization of funds in DeFi has more than doubled, largely due to the popularity of income pharming. At the same time, the top five DeFi protocols attracted $2.1 billion in crypto assets, or 91.7% of the total TVL volume.
• Compound — $690.8 million
• MakerDAO — $644.7 million
• Synthetix — $396 million
• Aave — $192.4 million
• Balancer — $178.2 million
And the total number of users of these projects was about 230,000.
The sharp rise in interest in Yield Farming is associated with one of the new protocols on the market — Compound. Users of this platform can provide loans or take out loans in nine different cryptocurrencies, for which they receive COMP project tokens. With these tokens, Compund users can make decisions about its future development. In other words, conditional “shares” of the Compound project are distributed to those who provide liquidity to the platform, as well as to those who take loans on it. This largely corresponds to the concept of SAFG (“a simple agreement on the possibility of obtaining the right to control in the future”) as a logical development of other principles of distribution of tokens — SAFE and SAFT.

COMP for BAT

Issued daily at 2880 COMP, which is equivalent to $518,688 at a token price of $180.1. Half goes to liquidity providers, half to borrowers. At the same time, distribution is carried out to each of nine markets (BAT, ETH, USDC, USDT, Dai, REP, 0x and Sai) — to everyone who borrows or takes loans from Compound, in proportion to the interest rate, as well as to their payments for interest or income. The higher the rates for a loan or loan, the more COMP tokens are paid.
At the same time, Compound is constantly updating its token distribution rules. So, according to the latest update from July 2, COMP payments begin to be made based not on interest rates, but on the dollar value of the funds in the transaction. This should eventually lead to more use of stablecoins. For them, borrowing rates can be less than 1%, which is ten times less than for the most volatile asset in DeFi — the BAT token.
It is worth noting that until recently, Compound users received the maximum number of COMP tokens for transactions with BAT. As a result, for the period from June 19 to July 2, the volume of transactions with this asset reached $931 million, which exceeded the total turnover of Ethereum and DAI for the same period. However, another change in the rules sharply increased the volumes of DAI and USDC.

Yield Farming: Borrowing Is Better Than Lending

The changes did not affect the main advantage of Compound — the COMP tokens received by users still cover the cost of borrowing in cryptocurrencies. In other words, Compound users find it more profitable to borrow than borrow (as noted, for example, with the Tether stablecoin). Payments of COMP tokens to borrowers look like a cryptocurrency cashback for participation in the platform — this can be viewed as if, for example, American Express bank shared a small share in the share capital with users for each transaction.
This Compound policy has led to a sharp increase in loans, as well as increased income for those providing liquidity, as they also receive COMP tokens for participating in the platform. Moreover, this cashback is a plus to the interest earned on borrowed cryptocurrencies. Moreover, since borrowers receive payments on loans, liquidity providers can use their own assets to borrow more funds. As a result, their income increases and they again provide liquidity to Compound.

Not only Compound

Compound was not the only one that played an important role in popularizing Yield Farming. So, Aave makes it possible to borrow cryptocurrencies at a fixed rate, and then place them in order to generate income. Aave’s fixed rate is usually higher than Compound’s variable, which means Aave gives more income to those who provide crypto loans. There are also liquidity pools, such as Uniswap, which offer large returns (sometimes at 100% annualized rate), but with higher risks.
While the price of СOMP shows a clear downward trend (research of the Delta Exchange platform claims that this token is five times overvalued), Compound is overgrown with competitors. So, on June 22, the COMP token cost $327.82 (on the day of listing on Coinbase Pro, June 23, at the moment the cost even rose to $427), and on July 12 it was already $180.1. The fall of СOMP is noticeable, but it is worth noting that at the beginning of its emission the token cost only $16. Moreover, about 80% of COMP tokens are distributed among the top 10 addresses in Compound, and the volume of tokens in free circulation is $686 million, which corresponds to a free-float indicator of 38%. It is not high, and this will contribute to the strong volatility of COMP.
Against the background of a decrease in the cost of COMP, the Balancer platform, which provides crypto lending services from a pool of various ERC20 tokens, began distributing 145,000 native BAL tokens to liquidity providers every week. These tokens, like COMP, provide the right to participate in the management of the platform. Of the maximum possible issue of BAL 100 million, 65% will go towards payments.

Risks of Yield Farming

Despite the popularity of Yield Farming among DeFi players, this trend is not without its pitfalls. For example, Ethereum co-founder Vitalik Buterin continues to criticize DeFi, stating that “interest rates that are significantly higher than you can get when working in the field of traditional finance are either an opportunity for temporary arbitrage or are obtained at the expense of not publicly disclosed risks.”
Indeed, when using Yield Farming, the following risks should be borne in mind:
• Cryptocurrencies can be stolen from the platform they are hosted on.
• The participant may borrow too much funds in relation to the crypto deposit placed by him (trading with high leverage), as a result of which the collateral may be lost.
• The collapse of cryptocurrency rates. This factor can be realized if, for example, it turns out that some stablecoins in reality do not have the declared 1:1 collateral.
• The Compound platform will no longer reward borrowers and lenders with COMP tokens. According to the statements of the project team, the program will operate over the next four years — during this time 42% of the total token emission will be distributed. However, the site has the right to change the rules.
• Systemic risk, within which even small changes in the core principles of Yield Farming can provoke a very strong transformation of this strategy and affect its popularity.
• Scam tokens. Due to the simple asset listing system on the Uniswap site, assets such as a copy of the Balancer token, fake coins of the Curve Finance project, the DYDX token, which can be confused with dYdX, and the Uniswap Community Token, which is not related to the platform itself, appeared on it. As a result, the site issued a warning about an increase in the number of fake ERC20 tokens.

Yield Farming gives hope for the growth of cryptocurrency quotes

But how does Yield Farming affect the crypto market in general? Over the last week of June and the first ten days of July, an additional 2,430 bitcoins were added to Compound, in addition to the 170 already available at that time. The Balancer platform during the same time saw an influx of bitcoins from 126 to 1787. In total, for the implementation of Yield Farming, DeFi protocols are now more than 12,000 BTC. Potentially, an increase in the inflow of bitcoins into this sector of the cryptocurrency market can play a positive role in relation to the dynamics of the growth of quotations of the first cryptocurrency. After all, the growing popularity of Yield Farming supports interest in BTC, which is especially important given that in July, the turnover of this cryptocurrency trade fell by 31% compared to June.
Since most of the DeFi projects are based on the Ethereum blockchain and use the assets of this ecosystem, ether can potentially get an incentive for strong growth. Although the example of XRP and the development of innovations from Ripple shows that such market success is not guaranteed. It is also symbolic that the total capitalization of ERC20 tokens has reached $33 billion, exceeding the total capitalization of ether ($26.6 billion). Messari analyst Ryan Watkins, commenting on this data, said that ether has shown a very modest growth over the past two months, only 20%.
The continued growth in interest in stablecoins and the increase in trading volume with them is also driven by their popularity at Yield Farming. Along with this, stablecoins, which have long become a “bridge” between the world of classical finance and the cryptosphere, also contribute to the rapid emergence of various CBDCs on the market.

Yield Farming meets institutional investors

Yield Farming has become a natural stage in the evolution of the cryptocurrency ecosystem. However, its further destiny, like all DeFi areas, is directly related to ensuring reliable cybersecurity. This is also important from the point of view of investors who invest in infrastructure: it’s a shame, for example, that the dForce platform faced the theft of $24 million in assets, having received $1.5 million in funding from investors a few days earlier.
In this connection, venture funds from Silicon Valley are being invested in the development of infrastructure for Yield Farming. So, ParaFi is investing $4.5 million in Aave, supporting a platform that offers instant cryptocurrency loans without collateral. These are high-risk transactions for the borrower, but it is important that Aave develops further. So, it has service integration with Uniswap. Moreover, Aave became the first DeFi protocol to work with the Tether stablecoin. Plus, the platform now offers a new product — credit delegation, when a depositor can lend their assets to a specific member of the platform in a collateral-free scheme. Both parties enter into a loan agreement, which, thanks to the integration of Aave with OpenLaw, allows such a contract to be securely stored on the blockchain. In fact, this is a real exit for DeFi with Yield Farming to the classic financial market, to work with institutional investors as well.
There is also a trend towards the integration of various platforms into DeFi, which thereby help each other grow. Thus, internal tokens and “synthetic” tokens (cTokens) Compound began to be used in Uniswap. And three projects at once — Synthetix, Curve and Ren — launched a joint pool providing liquidity in the form of tokenized bitcoins.
Also in a short period of time, insurance products targeted at Yield Farming members, such as Nexus Mutual, began to appear on the market. Now the Nexus Mutual team has insured assets in the amount of $8.5 million. Curve Finance is most interested in this opportunity ($1.6 million of assets are insured). Cryptocurrencies for an average of $700,000 are also insured on the Balancer, Compound, Aave and 1inch.exchange platforms.
Yield Farming, along with decentralized insurance products, confirms the opinion of analyst Chris Burniske, who emphasized that DeFi recreates all the elements that are found in classic finance, but on a new, innovative basis. So it cannot be said that Yield Farming is a short-term trend. This segment of the cryptosphere will continue to evolve despite the decline in net margin in it, as seen in the example of Compound.
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submitted by Smart_Smell to Robopay [link] [comments]

If you missed the AMA

AMA AT DETECTIVE ID (25/06/2020)
Before welcoming any questions, I would like to briefly introduce STATERA PROJECT. Statera is a smart contract deflationary token pegged to a cryptocurrency index fund. By including STA in an index fund with Link, BTC, ETH, and SNX you can buy one token and access the price action of four of the leading cryptocurrencies. You can also invest directly in the index fund (balancer pool) and receive the benefits of fees and BAL tokens paid to you while also having an automatically balanced fund. Lastly the deflationary mechanics of STA increases the chance for positive price action while decreasing beta (volatility). This is all found in a smart contract that is fully decentralized, the founders can no longer augment the contract in any way and this has been confirmed by a third party code audit through Hacken.
Q1 : please explain in more detail about Statera, what is the background of this project? and when was it established?
The dev of this project had previously created another deflationary token BURN. When the Balancer Labs released the Balancer Protocol, he had an idea to combine the two, deflationary token and a pool of tokens, making the first deflationary index fund. It started in the end of May and on the 3rd iteration, May 29th - a trustless version was launched that we see today. As briefly explained earlier, STATERA or STA is an Index Deflationary Token built on Ethereum blockchain; Index: Contains a token suite of world class leading crypto assests BTC, ETH, LINK, SNX with STA. Deflationary: On every transaction of STA 1% of the transacted amount is sent to 0x address on ethereum, burned forever, thus reducing the circulating supply of STA Index+Deflationary: STA is mixed with BTC, ETH, LINK SNX in a portfolio, backed by liquidity on a protocol known as balancer (balancer.finance) This platform serves as a market maker for the token suit. The Index suite is of equal rate of 20%, that is 20% of BTC, ETH, SNX LINK and STA, Thus, anytime there is an increase in value of any of those coins or tokens, balancer automatically trade them for STA in order to keep the token suit ratio balanced. And anytime there is an increase in the value of STA, the same process applies. while doing this trade, it enables further burning on every transaction, thus facilitating more token scarcity. In addition to this, Statera was deployed with contract finalised, that is, the index suite can not be altered, It is completely out of Dev's control.
Q2 : What are the achievements that have been obtained by Statera in 2020? And what goals do you want to achieve in 2020?
By this we assume the questionnaire is asking for a roadmap! First, the project is barely a month old, and within just a month, our liquidity has grown from $50,000 to over $400,000 currently above $300,000. Among the things we have accomplished so far is the creation of market value for STA's Balancer liquidity pool token BPT, which is currently over $1000 per one BPT. Regarding what we set to achieve: The future is filled with many opportunities and potentials, currently, we are working on a massive campaign to introduce our product to the outside world. We have already made contact with different and reputable forums and channels regarding marketing and advertisement offers, some which we are currently negotiating, some which we are awaiting response. All we can say for now is that the Team is working hard to make this the Investment opportunity every crypto enthusiast has been waiting for. Statera has the goal of putting cryptocurrency into every portfolio. We believe we have a product that increases the returns of investing in cryptocurrencies and makes it easier to diversify in this space. We have done so much in June: articles, how to videos, completed the audit, tech upgrades like one token liquidity additions, and beginning our many social communities. We have been hard at work behind the scenes but things like sponsorships, features, and media take time, content makers need days if not weeks to develop content, especially the best of the best. We are working tirelessly, we will not disappoint. We have plans for 2020-2025 and will release those in the next month. They are big and bold, you’re going to be impressed by the scale of our vision, when we say “Cryptocurrency in every portfolio” we mean it. In 2020 more specifically we are focused on more media, videos, product offerings, and exchanges.
Q3 : What is the purpose of STA token? How can we get STA? The purpose of STA is an investment in the first deflationary index fund. The whole index's value rises from these aspects: 1. The index funds (WBTC,WETH,SNX,LINK) appreciate in value 2. When the index tokens are traded, the pool receives transaction fees - 1% 3. STA burns on transactions, so it's deflationary nature increases its value as the total supply drops 4. Balancer rewards Index holders with BAL token airdrops every week You can invest via the 'Trade' links in stateraproject.com website. Easiest way is to do it using ETH. The monetary policy of our token is set in stone and constantly deflationary. This negative supply pressure is a powerful mechanism in economics and price discovery. Through the lowering of supply we can decrease your beta (volatility) and increase your alpha (gains). Our token is currently only top 40 in liquidity on Balancer, however our volume is top 10! You want to know why? Because Statera works. Statera increases arbitrage, volume, fees, BAL rewards, and liquidity. Our liquidity miners in our Balancer pool are already making some of the highest BAL rewards on the platform, one user we spoke with made 18% in June, that’s over 150% APY! Our product is working, 100% (or you could say 150%), and when people start to see that, and realize the value, the sky's the limit.
Q4 : can we as a user do STA mining? The supply of STA doesn't increase anymore, it only decreases due to the burn feature. So there is no way to mine anymore STA. Only way to acquire the tokens is via an exchange. The monetary policy of our token is set in stone and constantly deflationary. This negative supply pressure is a powerful mechanism in economics and price discovery. Through the lowering of supply we can decrease your beta (volatility) and increase your alpha (gains). Our token is currently only top 40 in liquidity on Balancer, however our volume is top 10! You want to know why? Because Statera works. Statera increases arbitrage, volume, fees, BAL rewards, and liquidity. Our liquidity miners in our Balancer pool are already making some of the highest BAL rewards on the platform, one user we spoke with made 18% in June, that’s over 150% APY! Our product is working, 100% (or you could say 150%), and when people start to see that, and realize the value, the sky's the limit.
Q5 : The ecosystem of a public chain has a lot to do with the level of engagement and participation of third-party developers. How does Statera support the developers?
Not really. Our project is focusing on investment opportunities for the cryptocurrencies. The cryptocurrency tokens that are not used and are just sitting in a wallet can work for you by being added to an index fund and appreciate in value over time. First off, what we have created is a new asset class, I’ll repeat that, a new asset class. This asset has never existed: “Deflationary Index Fund,” what does that mean for finance? What will developers do with this? It’s hard to give a finite answer. We hope there are future economic papers on our token and what it means to be a deflationary index fund. With the addition of synthetic assets and oracles you can put any asset into the DeFi space: Gold, Nikkei 225, USD, etc. STA can be combined with any assets and bring the benefits of it’s ecosystem and deflationary mechanism to that asset. STA, the token itself, also gives you access to the price action of any asset it is paired with. Put simply STA’s balancer pool(s) give you a benefit in holding them, and STA’s price will reflect it’s inclusion in Balancer Pool(s) (and possibly future financial instruments), so STA is a bet on DeFi as a whole. When we say as whole, we mean as whole: what happens if you include STA in a crypto loan, or package it with a synthetic S&P 500 token, or use it as fee payment in a DeFi platform? Being fully decentralized it is up to our community to make this happen, social engagement and community are key. We are constantly bringing community members onto our team and rewarding those that benefit the ecosystem. in addition, Statera is a fully community project now. Paul who is the current team leader was an ordinary member of the community weeks ago, due to his interest and support for the project, he started dedicating his time to the project. Quite a number of community members are also in the same position, while Statera was developed by an individual, it is being built by the entire Statera community
Community Questions (Twitter):
Q1 From: @KazimKara35 The project tells us that the acquisition and sale of data between participants is protected by code of conduct and how safe is deployed on the blockchain, but how do you handle regulations while operating on a global scale?
Statera is decentralized token, similar to other utility crypto tokens and same regulations apply to it as others. his is actually a benefit of our decentralized nature. This isn’t legal advice, however in the past regulating bodies have ruled that the more decentralized a project is, especially from launch, the less likely they are to be deemed a security (see: Ethereum). This means they can be traded more freely and be available on more platforms. We are as decentralized as you can be. The data itself is all secured through the blockchain which has been shown to be a highly secure medium. We do not store any of your data and as long as you follow best practices in blockchain security there are no added security risks of using Statera. We don’t, and literally can’t, hold anymore personal information than is made available in any blockchain transaction. and that "personal information" is more likely than not just your ethereum wallet address, no "real world" data is included in transactions
Q2 from: @Michael_NGT353 What is Mechanism you use On your Project sir? Are you Use PoS,PoW or other Mechanism Can you explain why you use it and what is Make it Different?
Our token is an ERC-20 token and it's running on the Ethereum blockchain. The Ethereum's POW mechanism is currently supporting the Statera token We run on Ethereum, so we are currently PoW. With ETH 2.0 we will hopefully be PoS this year (hopefully). We use it because ETH has over 100 million addresses and around a million daily transactions. We are currently at about 1,900 token holders, we are just touching the edge of what is possible in this market. We chose the biggest and the best network available right now to launch our product. We think the upside is huge because of this choice. Being the biggest network it is also one of the most secure, no high risk vulnerabilities have been found in Ethereum or in our code (we've had our code audited by a third party, Hacken, and you can read their audit on our Medium page), so we also have security on our side
Q3 From : @Ryaaan_Nguyen Can you list some of Statera outstanding features for everyone here to know about? What are the products that Statera is focusing on developing?
As mentioned earlier by GC, First off, what we have created is a new asset class, I’ll repeat that, a new asset class. This asset has never existed: “Deflationary Index Fund,” what does that mean for finance? What will developers do with this? It’s hard to give a finite answer. We hope there are future economic papers on our token and what it means to be a deflationary index fund. With the addition of synthetic assets and oracles you can put any asset into the DeFi space: Gold, Nikkei 225, USD, etc. STA can be combined with any assets and bring the benefits of it’s ecosystem and deflationary mechanism to that asset. STA, the token itself, also gives you access to the price action of any asset it is paired with. Put simply STA’s balancer pool(s) give you a benefit in holding them, and STA’s price will reflect it’s inclusion in Balancer Pool(s) (and possibly future financial instruments), so STA is a bet on DeFi as a whole. When we say as whole, we mean as whole: what happens if you include STA in a crypto loan, or package it with a synthetic S&P 500 token, or use it as fee payment in a DeFi platform? We touched on this a bit in the question on what makes us special compared to other exchanges. We have created a product that synergizes with Balancer Pools creating a symbiotic relationship that improves the outcomes for users (our product can also synergize with future DeFi products). By including STA in an index fund with Link, BTC, ETH, and SNX you can buy one token and access the price action of four of the leading cryptocurrencies. You can also invest directly in the index fund (balancer pool) and receive the benefits of fees and BAL tokens paid to you while also having an automatically balanced portfolio (like an index fund with dividends). Lastly, the deflationary mechanics of STA increases the chance for positive price action while decreasing beta. We want to package Statera with assets across the whole cryptocurrency space, with an emphasis on DeFi. We also want everyday people to be able to invest quickly in crypto while also feeling reassured their investment is set up to succeed. We are focused on developing a name brand that people go to first and foremost when investing in crypto: cryptocurrency in every portfolio. This is all found in a smart contract that is fully decentralized, the founders can no longer augment the contract in any way and this has been confirmed by the third party code audit. This is a feature in and of itself, some argue that Bitcoin’s true value is in it’s network effect, first mover advantage, and immutability. Statera is modeled on all three of those and has those features in spades. The community now owns our token, the power in that, giving finance and power to the people, is why we are here.
Q4 From : @futcek What do you think about the possibility of creating new use cases in DeFi space for existing real world assets by using crypto technology? What role do you see in this creation for Statera?
I think my answer above actually answers this perfectly, Statera in and of itself is a “new use case”, a “deflationary index fund” has never existed, I’ll copy and paste the other relevant part: “With the addition of synthetic assets and oracles you can put any asset into the DeFi space: Gold, Nikkei 225, USD, etc. STA can be combined with any assets and bring the benefits of it’s ecosystem and deflationary mechanism to that asset. STA, the token itself, also gives you access to the price action of any asset it is paired with. Put simply STA’s balancer pool(s) give you a benefit in holding them, and STA’s price will reflect it’s inclusion in Balancer Pool(s) (and possibly future financial instruments), so STA is a bet on DeFi as a whole. When we say as whole, we mean as whole: what happens if you include STA in a crypto loan, or package it with a synthetic S&P 500 token, or use it as fee payment in a DeFi platform? Being fully decentralized it is up to our community to make this happen, social engagement and community are key. We are constantly bringing community members onto our team and rewarding those that benefit the ecosystem.” Statera is a way to make your investment more successful, and owning Statera let's you benefit from other people using it to make their investments more successful (a self feeding cycle).
Q5 From : @Carmenzamorag Statera's deflationary system is based in that with every transaction 1% of the amount is destroyed, would this lead to lack of supply and liquidity in the long term future? How would that be fixed?
The curve of supply is asymptote, meaning that it will never reach zero. The idea is that the deflationary process will slowly decrease the supply of STA, which – combined with a fixed or increaseing demand – will result in STA appreciating in value. Evidently, as the STA token increases in value, the amounts of STA being traded will slowly decrease: The typical investor might buy 10.000 STA at the current rate, but in the future (proportional to an increase in the valueation of STA) this number will tend to decrease, hence the future investor might only buy 1000 STA. This of course results in less STA being burned. Additionally, STA is divisible to the 18th decimal, why – even if the supply was to reach 1 STA – there would be a sufficient supply. Well this would be a question for a Mathematician, and luckily we’re loaded with them (as seen above)! I’ll try to illustrate with an example. 1% of 100 million is 1 million, 1% of 10 million is 100,000. As we go down in supply the burn is less by volume. What also happens at lower supply is higher prices (supply and demand economics). So those 1 million tokens burned may be worth $20,000, but by the time overall supply is at 10 million those 100,000 tokens may also be worth $20,000 or even more. This means you transact “less”, if you want to buy 1 Ether now with Statera you need 8,900 STA which would burn 89 tokens. If Statera is worth $100 you only need 2.32 statera (.023 tokens burned). Along with this proportional and relative burn decrease, tokens are 18 decimals long, so even when we get to 1 token left (which mathematically would take decades if not centuries, but that is wholly dependent on usage), you are still left with 10 to the 18th power, or one quintillion “tokens”. So it’s going to take us a while to have supply issues :)
Nuked Phase (3rd Part)
Q) What is your VISION and Mission?
Our working mission and vision: Mission: Provide every investor with simple and effective ways to invest in cryptocurrency. Decrease volatility and increase positive price pressure in cryptocurrency investments. Lower the barrier to entry for more advanced investment tools. Be a community focused and community driven cryptocurrency, fully decentralized by every meaning of the word. Vision: We aspire to put “cryptocurrency in every portfolio”. We envision a world where finance is given back to the people and wealth building strategies withheld only for affluent individuals are given to all. We also strive to create an investment environment based on sound monetary policy and all the power that comes with a sound asset.
Q) What are the benefits of STA for its investors in long term? Does STA have Afrika as an important area for its expansion?
We have ties to Africa and see Statera as a way for anyone and everyone to invest in cryptocurrency. The small marketcap of statera makes it's price low and it's upside massive. Right now if you wanted to be exposed to the price action of four cryptocurrencies (BTC, ETH, Link, SNX) Statera is a way to gain that exposure in a way that has a huge upside, compared to the other four assets, there are risks in investing in any small cap but with those risk come outsized rewards (not investment advice and all answers are solely my opinions 😊)
Q) In the long run, why should we trust and follow STATERA? How do you raise awareness and elimination of the doubts of investors / partners / customers?.
You're really asking "How do I trust myself and other crypto investors" The project is FULLY decentralized, it is now in the hands of the community. We would venture a guess that the community wants their investment to succeed and be worth more in the future, so you are betting on people. wanting to make themselves money on their own investment. This is a pretty sure bet. The community being active and engaged is key, and we have short term and long term plans to ensure this happens
Q) No one can doubt the strength of #Statera. But can you tell us some of the challenges and difficulties you're presently facing? How can you possibly overcome them?
We're swinging outside our weightclass, we don't see litecoin or SNX, or any other crypto product as our competition. Our competition is NASDAQ, Fidelity, etc. We want to provide world class financial instruments that only the wealthy have access to in the traditional world to everyone. Providing liquidity, risk parity, being paid to provide liquidity, unique value propositions, are all things we want to bring to everyone. However we are coming up in a hectic space, everyday their is fud and defamation on the web, but that is the sandbox we chose to play in and we aren't grabbing our ball and going home. We can tell you that we will not disappoint and fighting all the fud that comes along with being a small and upstart project only fuel our fire. Building legitimacy is our largest challenge and looking at our audit, financial report, and some things you will see in the coming weeks, we hope you see we are facing those challenges head on.
Q) What is the actual uniqueness of #Statera.??? Can you guys please explain tha advantages of #Statera over other projects.??
When we launched there were no other products like ours. There are now copies, and we wish them the best, but we have the best product, hands down. Over the next couple weeks this will become apparent, if it hasn't already, also a lot of the AMA answers dug deeper into our unique value proposition, especially the benefits we provide to Balancer Pools which shows the benefits we would provide for any index fund. We are a tool to improve cryptocurrency investing
Q) Fragmentation, layering and cross-chain are three future solutions for high-performance blockchains. Where is Statera currently? What are the main reasons for taking this direction?
We operate on the Ethereum chain, as it upgrades our services and usability will upgrade. We are working on UI and more user friendly systems to onboard people into our ecosystem
Q) How STATERA plan to make room and make this project known in the world of crypto, full of technology and full of new projects very good in today's market?
We think we have a truly innovative product, which - when first understood - appeals to most investors. Whether you want a high-volatility/medium-risk token like STA or whether you are more conservative and simply just plan on adding to the Statera pool BPT (which is not nearly as volatile but still offers great returns). We plan on making Statera known to the crypto world through a marketing campaign which slowly will be unravelled in the comming days and weeks. If interested, you can check out an analysis of the different investment options in the Statera ecosystem in our first financial report: https://medium.com/@stateraproject/statera-financial-reports-b47defb58a18
Q) Hello, cryptocurrencies are very volatile and follow bitcoin ... and does this apply to Statera? or is there some other logic present in some way? is statera token different from a current token? Are you working on listings on other exchanges?
Currently uniswap is somewhat uncomfortable for fees. We are also on bamboo relay, saturn network, and mesa. Statera will be volatile like all cryptocurrency, this is a small and nascent space. But with the deflationary mechanic and balancer pool, over time, as marketcap grows it will become less volatile and more positively reactive to price.
Q) Security is one of the most essential characteristics for a project to get reputation. How can #Statera Team assure to their community that users assets and investments will stay safe from unwanted agents?
We have been third party audited by the same company that worked with VeChain to audit their code. Our code has been shown to be bulletproof. Unless Ethereum comes up with a fatal security flaw there is nothing that can happen to our contract (there is no backdoor, no way for anyone to edit or adjust the smart contract).
Q) Many investors see the project from the price of the coin. Can you give us advantages why Statera is so suitable for long-term investment? and what makes Statera different from other similar projects?
Sometimes the simplest solutions are the most effective. A question you can ask is “What if this fails”? But you can also ask, “What if this succeeds”? Cryptocurrency is filled with asymmetric risks, we think if you look into the value proposition you will find that there is a huge asymmetric risk/reward in Statera, and we will make that even clearer in our soon to be released litepaper. You are on the ground floor of a simple but highly effective solution to onboarding people into defi, cryptocurrencies, and investing. Our product reduces volatility and increases gains (decreases beta and increases alpha in investor terms), which is highly attractive in any investment. The down side is there but the upside outweighs it exponentially (asymmetric risk)
Q) What your plans in place for global expansion, are Statera focusing on only market at this time? Or focus on building and developing or getting customers and users, or partnerships? Can you explain this?
We have reached out to influencers in other countries and things are in the works. We have also translated documents and are working on having them in at least 4 languages by the end of July. We were founded globally, our team is global, and we are focused on reaching all 7 billion people.
Q) Now in the cryptofield everyday there are new projects joining in the Blockchain space. They are upgraded, Well-established and coming up with innovative technology. How Statera going to compete with them? What do you think, one day Statera will become useless And will be lost into the abyss of time for not bringing any new technology?
We are the first of our kind, no one had a deflationary index fund before us. Index funds will be the future of crypto (look at the popularity of etfs and indexes in the traditional markets). We are a tool to make your index function better and pay you more. As long as people care about crypto index funds they will care about the value STA brings to that. We have an involved and long term plan to reach dominance over a 5 year span, this is not a flash in the pan, big things coming
Q1. You say that the weight and proportions of your tokens are constant. So how have you managed to prevent market price speculation from generating hypervolability in your token price? Do you consider yourselves a kind of stablecoin? Q2. How many jurisdictions allow the use of Stratera products and services? Are they available for Latin America? @joloroeowo The balancer ensures an equal ratio of 20% amongst the five tokens included in our fund. This, however, does not imply that the tokens are stable. Rather, the Balancer protocol helps mitigating price fluctuations.
Q) How can I as a Statera participant participate in liquidity mining, and receive BAL as reward? What are the use cases of $STA token, and how are users motivated to buy and hold long term?
The easiest way is to go to stateratoken.com and click trade then BPT. You can also buy all five tokens and click on portfolio then add liquidity. Balancer is working on a simpler interface to add liquidity with one token, we are waiting on them. I think we explained the use cases above
Q) What do you plan have for global expansion, is Statera currently focused solely on the market? Or is it focused on building and developing or acquiring customer and user or partnership relationships? Can you explain it?
We are currently working on promoting the project and further develope our product, making it lucrative for more new investors to join our pool and invest in the STA token.
Q1) Statera have 2 types of tokens, so can you tell me the differences between STA and STAC ? What are their uses cases? Is possible Swap between them? Q2) Currently the only possible Swap or "exchange" possible is Uniswap, so you do have plans to list the STA token into a more Exchanges?
STAC is obsolete, we only have STA and BPT (go to our website and click on trade) stateratoken.com BPT gives you more diversification and less risk, STA gives you more volatility and more chance for big gains. Q2 we are on multiple exchanges (4), bamboo relay, saturn, and mesa we do have plans for future exchanges but the big ones have processes and hoops to jump through that can't be done so quickly
Q) What business scenarios can STATERA support now? In which industries can we see the mass adoption of STATERA technology in the near future?
Statera increases the effectiveness of your cryptocurrency investments. Specifically it makes cryptocurrency index funds function better, netting you higher returns, which we have already seen in just one month of implementation. Right now, today, you can buy our BPT token and increase the functionality of holding a crypto index fund. In the future we want every single web user to see and use our product
Q) Do you plan to migrate to other platforms like Tron, BinanceChain, EOS, etc. if it is feasible??
Migrating our current contract is not. Starting new offerings on those other chains could be possible, they aren't on our radar currently but if the community requests them we are driven by our community
Q) ETH Blockchain is a Blockchain have many token based in it, i have used ETH blockchain long time and i see it have big fee and need much time to make a transcation so Why you choose to based STA in ETH blockchain not other like Bep2 or Trc20 ?
Simply: 100 million addresses, 1 million transactions a day. The more users we have the more we will benefit our community. We hope ETH 2.0 scaling will fix the problems you mention.
Q) No one achieve anything of value on its own, please can you share about Statera present and future partnerships that will drive you to success in this highly congested crypto space?
We have a unique product that no one else has (there are people who have copied us). We can't announce our current and future partnerships yet, but they will be released soon. Our future hopes of partnerships are big and will be key to our future, know we are focused on making big partnerships, some you may not even be thinking about.
Q) According to the fact that your algorithm causes 1% of each transaction to be destroyed, I would like to know, then, how you plan to finance yourself as a project in the long term?
The project is now in the hands of the community and we are a team of passionate people volunteering to help promote and develope the Statera ecosystem. But then, how do we afford running a promo campaign? We have lots of great community members donating funds that goes to promoting the project. In other words, the community helps financing the project. And so far, we have created a fantastic community consisting of passionate and well-educated people!
Q) There are many cryptocurrency startups were established by talent teams, but they got problem in raising capital via token sales due to many factors as bear market, bankrupt etc. This leaded their potential startups fail. So how will Statera break these barriers and attract more funds from outside crypto space?
We are community focused and community ran. When you look at centralized cryptocurrencies you can see the negative of them (Tron, ADA, etc.) We believe being fully decentralized is the true power position. You the owner of statera can affect our future and must affect our future. This direct ownership means people need to mobilize and organize to push us forward, and it is in their best self interest to do so. It's a bet on our community, we're excited about that bet
Q) What business scenarios can STATERA support now? In which industries can we see the mass adoption of STATERA technology in the near future?
Statera increases the effectiveness of your cryptocurrency investments. Specifically it makes cryptocurrency index funds function better, netting you higher returns, which we have already seen in just one month of implementation. Right now, today, you can buy our BPT token and increase the functionality of holding a crypto index fund. In the future we want every single web user to see and use our product
Q) Why being a hybrid of a liquidity pool and an index fund? What are the main benefits about this?
By being a liquidity pool the exchange side of the pool (balancer also functions as an exchange) gives you added liquidity for more effortless, effective, and cheaper rebalancing. You also benefit from getting paid the fee when people use the exchange AND getting paid BAL tokens that are worth $15-20 USD. These are not benefits you get with an index fund, meanwhile the liquidity pool rebalances just like an index fund would
Q) Which specific about technology and strategy of #STA that make you believe it will be successful and what does #STA plan do to attract more users in the upcoming time?
I think the idea behind Statera is truly ingenious. We have made an index fund, which investors are highly(!) incentivised to invest in, namely because the ROI, so far, has been huge. An increase in the pool liquidity (index fund) indirectly translates into an increase in the price of STA, why we think the STA token - combined with its deflationary nature - will increase in the long run. The mechanism behind this is somewhat complex, but to better get an understanding of it, I suggest you visit our medium page and read more about the project: https://medium.com/@stateraproject
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CoronaHedge #1 — State prices, Nuclear War, and — FROZEN — CONCENTRATE — $OJ

Now sit your butts down Or take a fucking knee U gonna wanna bookmark me!!!
The only thing I ask The 1 thing u must do Make some dough by me? A 😘and 💋 are due!
TLDR: FUCK dudes in the comments, calm down! Long Frozen Concentrate $OJ futures options May 1.10 July 1.20 and 1.30 – $OJ futures are a perfect CV hedge for many reasons and super undervalued.
I. State Prices and Global Thermonuclear War: Or why the market didn't crash until recently
We invest because we believe the future will be different than the present. We believe that some things will be more (or less) valuable in the future than they are today. Our job as investors is, to the best of our ability 1) determine what all the possible futures look like 2) how likely each of them is 3) how valuable the asset of interest is in each possible future and 4) how we should personally discount for the relative risk of each particular asset and each particular future, and for the time value of money (money in the future is worth less to us than money in our pockets right now).
FUCK!!!!!! No wonder we'd rather just P&D Tesla!!!!
Now hold up boys and girls there's something deep hidden in this model. Let's call each possible future world a state and assume just one period of time between the present and the future. We're here in the present state, and there are a number of different future states at some indeterminate time later (doesn't matter for this discussion). Here's the rule: no multiverses! When "the future" arrives, we are in only one particular state out of all the possible states. (Now of course states could share characteristics, but two states that were identical = one state, and one state that exactly shares the characteristics of two other future states A and B is, for this discussion, its own individual state C.)
Got it?
Let's say there are 3 future states of the world 10 years from now:
  1. 30% chance: Super-awesome economic, technological and cultural blossoming!!!! Stocks go WAY up, bonds do nothing.
  2. 50% chance: Malaise where technological growth stops, low economic growth, increasing healthcare costs as people get older (eek! sound familiar?). Stocks go slightly down, bonds go up somewhat but hey we get to clip our coupons each month.
  3. 20% chance: Global thermonuclear war.
In each of these three states, assets have different projected values. The value TODAY of each asset is directly related to both the chances of each of the 3 future states occurring and the projected values of the assets in each of those states, averaged over all possible states by all investors. This is a model of reality that is designed to communicate some important truths. For you fellow finance nerds or lapsed ones like me, you will know where I'm going with this, but state pricing lies at the heart of the Nobel Prize winning Black-Scholes options pricing formula.
Think of the three possible future states above as spots where investors also allocate their money today. Remember, there are only three states of the world—you've got no other choice. For each state, you'll decide how much of your total wealth you want to allocate, and in what particular assets.
For instance—if you believe (1) is more likely, you will be biased to putting more money in stocks today. If you think (2) is going to happen FOR SURE, and you are a huge risk taker, maybe you'll put all of your money in bonds and none in stocks.
What about state (3)? There's a 1% chance of global thermonuclear war. Will you be alive? Will the government be around? Will markets even exist? Will you even be able to collect on your investment?
From The Optimistic Thought Experiment by Peter Thiel (2008):
More generally, apocalyptic thinking appears to have no place in the world of money. For if the doomsday predictions are fulfilled and the world does come to an end, then all the money in the world — even if it be in the form of gold coins or pieces of silver, stored in a locked chest in the most remote corner of the planet — would prove of no value, because there would be nothing left to buy or sell. Apocalyptic investors will miss great opportunities if there is no apocalypse, but ultimately they will end up with nothing when the apocalypse arrives. Heads or tails, they lose.In a narrow sense, it seems rational for investors to remain encamped at the altar of the efficient market — and just tend their own small gardens without wondering about the health of the world. A mutual fund manager might not benefit from reflecting about the danger of thermonuclear war, since in that future world there would be no mutual funds and no mutual fund managers left. Because it is not profitable to think about one ’s death, it is more useful to act as though one will live forever.
Conclusion: There are states of the world which are effectively NOT INVESTABLE AT ALL.
OK Joshua. Now let's say Russia, China, and USA announce initiation of arms control measures, and they are effective! Everyone follows. Instead of 30,000 warheads, 10 countries end up with 3 each. We develop Pooranium-236, an engineered bacteria that converts all fissible uranium into the smoothest, sexiest compost that ever existed. So no more additional nukes ever. AMAZING! Great news!
But what happens to state (3)? If the risk of a civilization destroying global thermonuclear war goes to zero, but in its place we've got a 10% chance of non-extinction nuclear war where 50 medium yield nukes are dropped. Which would be really really bad, but (let's say) not likely to destroy the world or take the economy offline forever...what then?
The number of investable states just went from 2 to 3, and one of them is super bad. In fact, in this state, you just want to be all-in gold, crypto, and farmland. So your portfolio of stocks and bonds would be at most 0, and more likely a short.
CRITICAL INSIGHT: The world just got better, the chance of civilization's sure death went from 20% to 0%, but the markets dumped on the news.
If you substitute the coronavirus for (3), let's think about one of the various scenarios that could describe what happened from the time the virus was discovered:
As an exercise, consider an alternative scenario based on where we are right now, under the assumption that seems to be common that "we will get through this, but it will be tough". What happens if the virus mutates, and it turns out that nope there now is a really big chance we're all gonna be wiped out?
II. State prices
Back to a revision of our original model that doesn't include non-investable states for simplicity. There are three states of the world:
  1. 30% chance: Super-awesome economic, technological and cultural blossoming!!!! Stocks go WAY up, bonds do nothing.
  2. 50% chance: Malaise where technological growth stops, low economic growth, increasing healthcare costs as people get older (eek! sound familiar?). Stocks go slightly down, bonds go up somewhat but hey we get to clip our coupons each month.
  3. 20% chance: Coronavirus that's pretty bad but it is recoverable.
In finance, we assume the presence of a completely risk free asset (US gov't bond). A bond will pay $1 in each of those three states, no matter what (since you know you'll get your money back for sure). Whatever a bond that pays $1 at "the future" time currently costs is how we derive "time value of money" or the risk-free interest rate. For all you linear algebra nerds, think of the payoff vector of a bond in our model as [1,1,1] representing the three states of the world.
Now let's consider the other two other assets in this world. A stock, and (here we go!) ORANGE JUICE. In each state, a stock has a different expected return, because it will be more or less valuable depending on how the future ends up. Same goes for OJ. Let's say a stock trading at $1 today is worth $2 in state (1), $0.80 in (2) and $0.40 in state (3). Now this is very important. Normally if you have 3 future states of the world, each with some chance of occurring and a projected value of an asset in that state, you just take the expected value (including a discount for time, and for the fact that you're taking some risk) and you get a price.
Here we are doing something different. We are taking the prices of the 3 assets today, and under the no-arbitrage condition ("there's no free lunch" = you can't make more money than the risk free rate by taking no risk) trying to find a price we would pay TODAY for $1 in each future state alone. This is called the state price. A decent introduction with the math involved can be found in any finance book (for a real first-principles based textbook by a very clear and well-respected professor, I highly recommend "Investment Science" by Luenberger) or the first part of these lecture notes.
We won't go through the math involved, but the point to remember is that if you add up the state prices of each state (represented by the payoff vectors [1 0 0], [0 1 0], [0 0 1]), you get the price of the bond because you are guaranteed to have $1 in the future. And, to restate the last paragraph, if you add up the state price * the payoff of each asset in each state, summed over all the states, you get the current price of the asset.
So let's take the state prices as given and think about what happens when "things change".
Let's say the state prices we have derived are:
  1. $0.20
  2. $0.60
  3. $0.10
(Remember, it has to add up to the price of a bond, which will be less than $1 if the bond pays $1 guaranteed in the future).
What happens to the state price of (3) when the chance of it occurring goes from 20% to 90% and it is still investable. Remember, all you are trying to figure out is how much you would pay for $1 in that state, today.
It has to go up, and the state prices of the other two states have to go down, because they MUST sum to the price of the bond.
**(**Why does it have to go up? Think about it in the limit. Let's say it goes to 99%. There is a 99% chance state (3) will occur. How much do you pay for $1 in that state if it is a near certainty? A lot more than you would if the state had a 20% chance of occurring—no matter what that state looks like, as long as it is investible. In fact, you might even pay ABOVE $1 in certain cases, because depending on the alternatives, you think you can pick up assets on the cheap and so $1 in that state is lots more valuable on a relative basis than in other states.)
And since the price of any asset must equal the state prices x the value of the payoff in each state, the asset prices must change, in ways that depend on their relative values and (CRITICAL INSIGHT) how their payoffs in each state were impacted by the same change in the world that changed the chance of state (3) being the real future.
III. The hedge: "20 Questions" for discussion
  1. When people walk into the grocery store and are sick, or they are scared about getting sick and want to build up their immunity, which fruits and vegetables become, on the margin, more likely to catch their eye?
  2. How often (when was the last time?) and how frequently do you personally buy frozen orange juice in a can or the OJ (from concentrate) in a bottle/carton? What about the rest of the country? What implications does that have given your answer to Q1 for baseline demand in states (1) and (2) vs state (3).
  3. How attractive is concentrate vs fresh in times of supply chain disruption?
  4. How much of the total retail cost of OJ would you estimate the raw concentrate represents? What does that imply about the relationship between the price change at the producer level and the price change at consumer level and its effect on consumer demand?
  5. What sort of juices do they serve in hospitals and what is the relative distribution between fresh and concentrate? When someone is in the hospital for 2 weeks, how does their juice consumption change vs if they were at home for 2 weeks?
  6. What percent of the FCOJ supply is grown in Brazil? How does that geographic concentration compare to other tradable commodities? What is your assessment of the US-Brazil shipping supply chain in all (3) of the states?
  7. Where does one take delivery of a purchase made via futures contract? What does that imply if supply cannot suddenly reach those locations?
  8. What sort of functions characterize the parameters and scenarios above (in a "hand-wavey") and the relationships between them. E.g.: Is Brazilian transportation cost/breakdown a linear function of the different states? Of the price? A linear function between the changes in state (3) probability? What does the demand curve for FROZEN OJ look like in relation to the availability of fresh citrus or fresh squeezed juice? Etc.
  9. Does citrus have other beneficial compounds besides Vitamin C that may affect immunity? How many people know this right now, and how might that change?
  10. If the same thing that increases the CHANCE of (3) occurring (which also increases the state price) ALSO increases the projected value of OJ in that state INDEPENDENTLY, what implications does this have for the current price of OJ given the above discussion?
  11. What classes of functions might characterize price given your answer to Q8 and Q10? How does that compare to the types of functions that characterize price in states (1) and (2)? Why?
  12. If the functions that characterize price dynamics are different in each state, how would realized price charts look under those different classes of functions? What about the technicals and current volatility when state probabilities and payoffs change in response to new information?
  13. What is the definition of a "hedge" in light of the state price model and your answers to the questions above? What makes one hedge more attractive relative to another hedge? Does it matter if they need be explicitly hedging the exact same realized outcome, in the exact same way?
  14. Describe the FCOJ futures market and compare it in terms of size, volume, gross value, players. What implications does this have for marginal demand on the supply side and on the demand side? From producers, bottlers, speculators, and market makers?
  15. Define "volatility regime" and "phase change" in your own words, as it might relate to the discussion above and your answers to the questions above?
  16. What does the chart of FCOJ futures prices look like? What do you expect it to look like given the discussion above? Given your answers to Q8, Q10-11, Q15?
  17. What does the implied volatility of the options on OJ futures look like given your answer to Q16? "Compared to what?"
  18. How much activity/discussion is there of OJ futures online?
  19. Restate the argument being attempted in this post in your own words. How confident are you in the validity of this argument? How frequently have you seen posts like this show up on wsb? What might my motivation be?
  20. If all of the above is true, and the implications are extremely positive for the price of FCOJ, then why hasn't the price of FCOJ futures yet reflected that? What about the futures options?
submitted by _KissMeThruThePhone_ to wallstreetbets [link] [comments]

Withdrawal Delays User Experiences (post here)

Hi Vinex community,
I've noticed Vinex withdrawals can get stuck in processing. Is this a common issue for traders? How long does it normally take to get a tx-id. This makes it very difficult to do arbitrage trades and bring more crypto back into the exchange if they continuously delay withdrawals.
What's your experience?
submitted by fairysquirt to MidasProtocolOfficial [link] [comments]

How Prime Advantage App Works and How to Use it

How Prime Advantage App Works and How to Use it
Prime Advantage works on the basis of arbitrage or rather, collecting data from multiple exchanges and noting differences in prices between different exchanges. It then trades these differences.
https://preview.redd.it/w7hxs1l9uyc51.jpg?width=1302&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=a5ea0e80447d5918b4bede8a4744c2bcf0e2dc9d
Since there are many exchanges integrated, it makes multiple trades per minute. It uses artificial intelligence and machine learning algorithms to predict prices and trade. It trades whether the market is going up or down.
Like many Prime Advantage reviews will explain, this app puts into using computer algorithms that allow it to predict future crypto prices. Users do not need to do manual predictions. Usually, it uses historical and present data to draft technical and fundamental analyses. The outputs are trading signals that are actionable trading information. It uses these signals to act in the market such as design orders, thus making a profit.
Because prediction is highly accurate and the prediction is done every other fraction of a second, it optimizes profitability.

Registration

Signing up: It is easy to sign up on the app as it will explain Prime Advantage reviews. For instance, all you need is to visit the website and fill in personal data. Actually, only the name and email are necessary to sign up.
Depositing and withdrawing: The app allows users to deposit a minimum of $250 to start trading and earning profits. You can deposit and withdraw using banks and various e-money deposit methods.
Trading: On signup and deposit, you get access to the app after which you can start trading, free of charge. The minimum deposit is $250. The app provides information on how users can get started.
Access the official website now or keep reading our Prime Advantage review until the end to find out our verdict.
To make the most of the software, users need to start with the minimum trading amount and can plow back profit. The other option is to upgrade after practicing with the app. Besides, users can spend time learning about how trading works or to get expert advice. However, the app does not need any prior knowledge about crypto or trading.

Verdict: Is Prime Advantage Scam or Legit?

There are a few Prime Advantage legit claims online. But also, we did not find any Prime Advantage scam claims from any users. The absence of Prime Advantage scam claims is a positive sign. The app also appears legal given that the owner says he has a team of legal experts to review and ensure it is. The app uses blockchain and also, the web is secured with SSL encryption. Additionally, the app is free to use, achieves a high success rate of 98%, and has many positive reviews on the website. It also allows for withdrawals of profits and deposited amounts. Thank you for taking the time to read our Prime Advantage review. Also, don’t forget to follow our Youtube channel and Facebook page.
submitted by manik_kundu_2020 to u/manik_kundu_2020 [link] [comments]

Turn $50 into $200 in a day with Crypto Arbitrage? - YouTube Best crypto arbitrage trading bot 2020 / Arbitly Tutorial How to PROFIT from ARBITRAGE TRADING explained! - YouTube Real Life Arbitrage Trade: how to execute a trade (tutorial) How To Find Arbitrage Opportunities on Crypto Exchanges

Arbitrage is taking advantage of the price difference between identical assets but in two different markets. Cryptocurrency arbitrage is fundamentally no different than other asset types and in this article, I will show you how I was able to achieve a 1 % profit an hour with nothing more than a hundred bucks in cryptocurrency and a little programming knowledge. Meet Crypto Arbitrage. Yes, the solution is arbitrage on the cryptocurrency exchanges. That means using the price differences of the same cryptocurrency on various exchanges. Arbitrage is the best strategy for trading when there are so many moves on the market. Significant price differences arise for the same cryptocurrency on multiple exchanges. What is crypto arbitrage? Cryptocurrency arbitrage is a type of trading that exploits differences in prices to make a profit. These price differences commonly referred to as “arbitrage spreads”, can be used to buy a cryptocurrency at a lower price and then sell it at a higher price. The arbitrage is the simultaneous purchase and sale of a coin to profit from an imbalance in the price. It is a combination of trades that profit by exploiting the price difference of the identical trading pair between two or more crypto exchanges. Arbitrage Crypto Trader gives possibility of a convenient inter-exchange arbitrage trade. You do not have to hire programmers to write bots for automatic trading, make up TK for them and try to explain what you need. The convenient interface of the program will help you to trade in a manual mode, as exchanges differ in design and functionality

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Turn $50 into $200 in a day with Crypto Arbitrage? - YouTube

https://CryptoCrow.io - https://CrowTrader.com https://partner.bybit.com/b/TeamCrow ByBit - Not Intended for US Based Traders Bybit is a Tool to be used resp... Cryptocurrency arbitrage is a unique trading strategy in the crypto world. There are many types of arbitrage, but on a high level, it involves taking advanta... Crypto Arbitrage Explained for Dummies! (Should you try arbitrage?) - Duration: 11:13. ... How to Arbitrage trade on the same exchange - Duration: 4:20. Jeremy Rush 4,048 views. Today we walk through a real life cryptocurrency arbitrage trade on the ARB 2.0 platform. We’ll be taking the time to go through this step by step to help you see exactly what needs to be done. Crypto Arbitrage Trading Bot and Management Suite Start your 14 day trail http://bit.ly/2LIqvZB Arbitrage Trading Made Simple Make money with Jonny Blockchai...

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